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J Exp Bot. 2011 Mar;62(6):1831-45. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erq367. Epub 2010 Dec 30.

Mapping and linkage disequilibrium analysis with a genome-wide collection of SNPs that detect polymorphism in cultivated tomato.

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Department of Horticulture and Crop Sciences, The Ohio State University, OARDC, 1680 Madison Ave. Wooster, OH 44691, USA.


The history of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) improvement includes genetic bottlenecks, wild species introgressions, and divergence into distinct market classes. This history makes tomato an excellent model to investigate the effects of selection on genome variation. A combination of linkage mapping in two F(2) populations and physical mapping with emerging genome sequence data was used to position 434 PCR-based markers including SNPs. Three-hundred-and-forty markers were used to genotype 102 tomato lines representing wild species, landraces, vintage cultivars, and contemporary (fresh market and processing) varieties. Principal component analysis confirmed genetic divergence between market classes of cultivated tomato (P <0.0001). A genome-wide survey indicated that linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays over 6-8 cM when all cultivated tomatoes, including vintage and contemporary, were considered together. Within contemporary processing varieties, LD decayed over 6-14 cM, and decay was over 3-16 cM within fresh market varieties. Significant inter-chromosomal (gametic phase) LD was detected in both fresh market and processing varieties between chromosomes 2 and 3, and 2 and 4, but in distinct chromosomal locations for each market class. Additional LD was detected between chromosomes 3 and 4, 3 and 11, and 4 and 6 in fresh market varieties and chromosomes 3 and 12 in processing varieties. These results suggest that breeding practices for market specialization in tomato have led to a genetic divergence between fresh market and processing types.

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