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Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Sep;54(5):458-63. doi: 10.4103/0019-5049.71047.

Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery.

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  • 1Department of Anaesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India.


Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A) or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 µg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B). Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min) than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min); P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 µg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.


Bupivacaine; caudal analgesia; clonidine; post-operative analgesia; sub-umbilical surgery

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