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ACS Nano. 2011 Jan 25;5(1):574-80. doi: 10.1021/nn102704h. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Flexible and metal-free light-emitting electrochemical cells based on graphene and PEDOT-PSS as the electrode materials.

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The Organic Photonics and Electronics Group, Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.


We report flexible and metal-free light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) using exclusively solution-processed organic materials and illustrate interesting design opportunities offered by such conformable devices with transparent electrodes. Flexible LEC devices based on chemically derived graphene (CDG) as the cathode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate) as the anode exhibit a low turn-on voltage for yellow light emission (V = 2.8 V) and a good efficiency 2.4 (4.0) cd/A at a brightness of 100 (50) cd/m(2). We also find that CDG is electrochemically inert over a wide potential range (+1.2 to -2.8 V vs ferrocene/ferrocenium) and exploit this property to demonstrate planar LEC devices with CDG as both the anode and the cathode.

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