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J Med Chem. 2011 Jan 27;54(2):591-602. doi: 10.1021/jm101266s. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Identifying chelators for metalloprotein inhibitors using a fragment-based approach.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0358, United States.


Fragment-based lead design (FBLD) has been used to identify new metal-binding groups for metalloenzyme inhibitors. When screened at 1 mM, a chelator fragment library (CFL-1.1) of 96 compounds produced hit rates ranging from 29% to 43% for five matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), 24% for anthrax lethal factor (LF), 49% for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and 60% for tyrosinase (TY). The ligand efficiencies (LE) of the fragment hits are excellent, in the range of 0.4-0.8 kcal/mol. The MMP enzymes all generally elicit the same chelators as hits from CFL-1.1; however, the chelator fragments that inhibit structurally unrelated metalloenzymes (LF, 5-LO, TY) vary considerably. To develop more advanced hits, one hit from CFL-1.1, 8-hydroxyquinoline, was elaborated at four different positions around the ring system to generate new fragments. 8-Hydroxyquinoline fragments substituted at either the 5- or 7-positions gave potent hits against MMP-2, with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. The 8-hydroxyquinoline represents a promising new chelator scaffold for the development of MMP inhibitors that was discovered by use of a metalloprotein-focused chelator fragment library.

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