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Int J Nanomedicine. 2010 Nov 19;5:991-7. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S14284.

Non-invasive and transdermal measurement of blood uric acid level in human by electroporation and reverse iontophoresis.

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Hopkins Health Management Center, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China.


The aim of this study was to find out the optimum combination of electroporation (EP) and reverse iontophoresis (RI) on noninvasive and transdermal determination of blood uric acid level in humans. EP is the use of high-voltage electric pulse to create nano-channels on the stratum corneum, temporarily and reversibly. RI is the use of small current to facilitate both charged and uncharged molecule transportation across the skin. It is believed that the combination of these two techniques has additional benefits on the molecules' extraction across the human skin. In vitro studies using porcine skin and diffusion cell have indicated that the optimum mode for transdermal uric acid extraction is the combination of RI with symmetrical biphasic direct current (current density = 0.3 mA/cm²; phase duration = 180 s) and EP with 10 pulses per second (voltage = 100 V/cm²; pulse width = 1 ms). This optimum mode was applied to six human subjects. Uric acid was successfully extracted through the subjects' skin into the collection solution. A good correlation (r² = 0.88) between the subject's blood uric acid level and uric acid concentrations in collection solutions was observed. The results suggest that it may be possible to noninvasively and transdermally determine blood uric acid levels.


Reverse iontophoresis; electroporation; monitoring; noninvasive; transdermal; uric acid

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