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J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jan;111(1):111-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.10.002.

Association of modifiable and nonmodifiable factors with vitamin D status in pregnant women and neonates in Oakland, CA.

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US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Services, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, USA.


There is little information on the contribution of modifiable vs nonmodifiable factors to maternal and neonatal vitamin D status in temperate regions of the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional observation study conducted between December 2006 and February 2008 was to identify associations between observed and measured maternal characteristics and vitamin D status at term in pregnant women and their infants in a multiethnic community in Oakland, CA. Two hundred seventy-five pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years and carrying a singleton fetus were recruited and data from 210 mother-infant pairs were included in analyses. Analysis of covariance identified predictors of maternal and cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a multivariate model considering vitamin D intake, lifestyle factors, and skin pigmentation. Maternal serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with season of delivery (P=0.0002), average daily D intake (P=0.0008), right upper inner arm pigmentation (P=0.0035), and maternal pre- or early-pregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) (P=0.0207). The same factors were significant for cord serum 25(OH)D, which was highly correlated with maternal serum 25(OH)D (r=0.79; P<0.0001). During the year, 54% of mothers and 90% of neonates had 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L). Of women taking daily prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements (400 IU vitamin D), 50.7% had serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L). In conclusion, 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L) was prevalent in mothers and neonates across racial groups and seasons, and vitamin D status was associated with both modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors.

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