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Int J Dermatol. 2011 Jan;50(1):13-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04727.x.

Tuberous sclerosis complex: tumors and tumorigenesis.

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Department of Child Neurology, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.


Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited disorder characterized by hamartomas in different body organs, mainly in the brain, skin, kidney, liver, lung, and heart. The clinical manifestations of TSC are the result of a mutation of one of two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Cutaneous findings in TSC should be regarded as cutaneous signs of a pivotal systemic disease. The authors elucidate the variety of neoplasms seen in TSC patients, along with their clinical significance, and suggest suitable evaluation and management strategies.

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