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Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2008 Sep;1(2):4-11. doi: 10.1177/1756285608095119.

Diagnosis and treatment of paroxysmal dyskinesias revisited.

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Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Universitätsklinik für Neurologie, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.


Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PDs) are a rare group of hyperkinetic movement disorders mainly characterized by their episodic nature. Neurological examination may be entirely normal between the attacks. Three main types of PDs can be distinguished based on their precipitating events - (i) paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias (PKD), (ii) paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesias (PNKD) and (iii) paroxysmal exercise-induced (exertion-induced) dyskinesias (PED). The diagnosis of PDs is based on their clinical presentation and precipitating events. Substantial progress has been made in the field of genetics and PDs. Treatment options mainly include anticonvulsants and benefit of treatment is depending on the type of PD. Most important differential diagnosis are non-epileptic psychogenic, non-epileptic organic and epileptic attack disorders, especially nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.


epilepsy; paroxysmal dyskinesia; paroxysmal exercise-induced (exertion-induced) dyskinesia; paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia

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