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Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2008 Jul;1(1):33-42. doi: 10.1177/1756285608094263.

Recent and future advances in the treatment of status epilepticus.

Author information

1
Interdisciplinary Epilepsy Center Marburg Department of Neurology Philipps-University Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany.

Abstract

Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most frequent neurological emergencies with an incidence of 20/100,000 per year and a mortality between 3% and 40% depending on etiology, age, SE type and duration. Generalized convulsive forms of SE (GTCSE), in particular, require aggressive treatment. Presently, only 55-80% of cases of GTCSE are controlled by initial therapy. Therefore, there is a need for new options for the treatment of SE. Here we review the current standard treatment including recent advances and provide a summary of preclinical and clinical data regarding treatment options which may become available in the near future. The initial treatment of SE usually consists of a benzodiazepine (preferably lorazepam 0.1 mg/kg) followed by phenytoin or fosphenytoin or valproic acid (where approved for SE therapy). With intravenous formulations of levetiracetam, available since 2006, and lacosamide, which is expected for autumn of 2008, new treatment options have become available, that should be evaluated in prospective controlled trials. If SE remains refractory, the induction of general anaesthesia using propofol, midazolam, thiopental, or pentobarbital is warranted in GTCSE.

KEYWORDS:

antiepileptic drugs; lacosamide; levetiracetam; lorazepam; status epilepticus

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