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Endocrinology. 2011 Feb;152(2):457-67. doi: 10.1210/en.2010-1098. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Differential effects of PPAR-{gamma} activation versus chemical or genetic reduction of DPP-4 activity on bone quality in mice.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mt Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of fracture that can be further exacerbated by thiazolidinediones. A new class of antidiabetic agents control glucose through reduction of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity; however the importance of DPP-4 for the control of bone quality has not been extensively characterized. We compared the effects of the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone and the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on bone quality in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice. In complementary studies, we examined bone quality in Dpp4(+/+) vs. Dpp4(-/-) mice. Pioglitazone produced yellow bones with greater bone marrow adiposity and significantly reduced vertebral bone mechanics in male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) HFD fed female mice. Pioglitazone negatively affected vertebral volumetric bone mineral density, trabecular architecture, and mineral apposition rate in male mice. Sitagliptin treatment of HFD-fed wild-type mice significantly improved vertebral volumetric bone mineral density and trabecular architecture in female mice, but these improvements were lost in females after OVX. Genetic inactivation of Dpp4 did not produce a major bone phenotype in male and female Dpp4(-/-) mice; however, OVX Dpp4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced femoral size and mechanics. These findings delineate the skeletal consequences of pharmacological and genetic reduction of DPP-4 activity and reveal significant differences in the effects of pioglitazone vs. sitagliptin vs. genetic Dpp4 inactivation on bone mechanics in mice.

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