Send to

Choose Destination
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2011 Jan;11(1):91-100. doi: 10.1586/erm.10.97.

Tumor-associated macrophages in breast cancer as potential biomarkers for new treatments and diagnostics.

Author information

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1710 UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94143-1710, USA.


While several inflammatory cell types participate in cancer development, macrophages specifically play a key role in breast cancer, where they appear to be part of the pathogenesis of high-grade tumors. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) produce factors that promote angiogenesis, remodel tissue and dampen the immune response to tumors. Specific macrophage types contribute to increased metastases in animal models, while human studies show an association between TAMs and tumors with poor prognostic features. Macrophages display a spectrum of phenotypic states, with the tumor microenvironment skewing TAMs towards a 'nonclassical' activation state, known as the M2, or wound healing/regulatory state. These TAMs are found in high-risk breast cancers, making them an important therapeutic target to explore. Improved techniques for identifying TAMs should translate into clinical applications for prognosis and treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center