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Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Feb 25;653(1-3):82-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.12.001. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Histidine and carnosine alleviated hepatic steatosis in mice consumed high saturated fat diet.

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Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung County, Taiwan, ROC.


The effects of histidine, alanine and carnosine on activity and/or mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in liver and adipose tissue from high fat diet treated mice were examined. Histidine, alanine or carnosine, each agent at 1g/l was added into drinking water for 8-wk supplement. Histidine or carnosine supplement increased hepatic levels of alanine, histidine and carnosine. High fat diet evoked lipogenesis via raising the activity and mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, SREBP-1a, -1c and -2 in liver and adipose tissue (P<0.05), which consequently increased mice body weight, epididymal fat, and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents (P<0.05). The intake of histidine or carnosine significantly diminished the activity and mRNA expression of malic enzyme, FAS, HMG-CoA reductase, SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, which led to lower body weight, epididymal fat, and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels (P<0.05). Mice consumed high fat diet exhibited hyper-insulinemia, hyper-leptinemia, hypo-adiponectinemia and hypo-ghrelinemia. Histidine or carnosine treatments significantly improved insulin sensitivity and attenuated hyper-insulinemia (P<0.05). These results support that histidine and carnosine are effective agents for mitigating high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis.

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