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Cancer Sci. 2011 Mar;102(3):522-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01816.x. Epub 2010 Dec 19.

MiR-96 and miR-183 detection in urine serve as potential tumor markers of urothelial carcinoma: correlation with stage and grade, and comparison with urinary cytology.

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Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.


A new diagnostic marker for urothelial carcinoma (UC) is needed to avoid painful cystoscopy during the initial diagnosis and follow-up period. However, the current urine markers are useless because of the low sensitivities and specificities for UC detection. MiR-96 and miR-183 were differentially upregulated microRNA in our previous microRNA screening for UC. The expression levels of miR-96 and miR-183 in the urine samples were significantly higher in 100 UC than in healthy controls (miR-96, P=0.0059; and miR-183, P=0.0044). The receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that each microRNA had good sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing UC patients from non-UC patients (miR-96, 71.0% and 89.2%; and miR-183, 74.0% and 77.3%). Our cohort included 78 UC patients who had undergone urinary cytology. MiR-96 was positively detected in 27 of 44 patients who had had a "negative" urinary cytology diagnosis. We combined the miR-96 detection data with the urinary cytology data, and diagnosed 61 of 78 cases as UC; sensitivity rose from 43.6% to 78.2%. We found significant stepwise increases in miR-96 and miR-183 expression with advancing tumor grade (miR-96, P=0.0057; and miR-183, P=0.0036) and pathological stage (miR-96, P=0.0332; and miR-183, P=0.0117). The expression levels of the microRNA were significantly lower in urine collected after surgery (miR-96, P=0.0241; and miR-183, P=0.0045). In conclusion, miR-96 and miR-183 in urine are promising tumor markers for UC. In particular, miR-96 may be a good diagnostic marker in combination with urinary cytology.

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