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World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2010 Jul 16;2(7):257-62. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v2.i7.257.

Anesthesia and sedation in pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures: A review.

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Abdul Q Dar, Zahoor A Shah, Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir 190011, India.


Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedure has become an essential modality for evaluation and treatment of GI diseases. Intravenous (IV) sedation and General Anesthesia (GA) have both been employed to minimize discomfort and provide amnesia. Both these procedures require, at the very least, monitoring of the level of consciousness, pulmonary ventilation, oxygenation and hemodynamics. Although GI endoscopy is considered safe, the procedure has a potential for complications. Increased awareness of the complications associated with sedation during GI endoscopy in children, and involving the anesthesiologists in caring for these children, may be optimal for safety. Belonging to a younger age group, having a higher ASA class and undergoing IV sedation were identified as risk factors for developing complications. Reported adverse events included inadequate sedation, low oxygen saturation, airway obstruction, apnea needing bag mask ventilation, excitement and agitation, hemorrhage and perforation. A complication rate of 1.2% was associated with procedures performed under GA, as compared to 3.7% of complications associated with IV sedation. IV sedation was seen to be independently associated with a cardiopulmonary complication rate 5.3% times higher when compared to GA. GA can therefore be considered safer and more effective in providing comfort and amnesia.


Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal; General anesthesia; Pediatrics; Sedation

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