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Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2011 Mar;51(1):16-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-4520.2010.00310.x.

Value of the small cohort study including a physical examination for minor structural defects in identifying new human teratogens.

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Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0828, USA.


Most known human teratogens are associated with a unique or characteristic pattern of major and minor malformations and this pattern helps to establish the causal link between the teratogenic exposure and the outcome. Although traditional case-control and cohort study designs can help identify potential teratogens, there is an important role for small cohort studies that include a dysmorphological examination of exposed and unexposed infants for minor structural defects. In combination with other study design approaches, the small cohort study with a specialized physical examination fulfills a necessary function in screening for new potential teratogens and can help to better delineate the spectrum and magnitude of risk for known teratogens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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