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Clin Exp Immunol. 2011 Feb;163(2):242-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04283.x. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

Interference of Bifidobacterium choerinum or Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 with Salmonella Typhimurium in gnotobiotic piglets correlates with cytokine patterns in blood and intestine.

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  • 1Department of Immunology and Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Novy Hradek, Czech Republic.


The colonization, translocation and protective effect of two intestinal bacteria - PR4 (pig commensal strain of Bifidobacterium choerinum) or EcN (probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917) - against subsequent infection with a virulent LT2 strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were studied in gnotobiotic pigs after oral association. The clinical state of experimental animals correlated with bacterial translocation and levels of inflammatory cytokines [a chemokine, interleukin (IL)-8, a proinflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10] in plasma and intestinal lavages. Gnotobiotic pigs orally mono-associated with either PR4 or EcN thrived, and bacteria were not found in their blood. No significant inflammatory cytokine response was observed. Mono-association with Salmonella caused devastating septicaemia characterized by high levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in plasma and TNF-α in the intestine. Di-associated gnotobiotic pigs were given PR4 or EcN for 24 h. Subsequently, they were infected orally with Salmonella and euthanized 24 h later. Pigs associated with bifidobacteria before Salmonella infection suffered from severe systemic infection and mounted similar cytokine responses as pigs infected with Salmonella alone. In contrast, EcN interfered with translocation of Salmonella into mesenteric lymph nodes and systemic circulation. Pigs pre-associated with EcN thrived and their clinical condition correlated with the absence of IL-10 in their plasma and a decrease of TNF-α in plasma and ileum.

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