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Clin Exp Immunol. 1990 Jun;80(3):435-43.

Cytokine regulation of human monocyte interleukin-1 (IL-1) production in vitro. Enhancement of IL-1 production by interferon (IFN) gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-2 and IL-1, and inhibition by IFN-alpha.

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Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia.


IL-1 production (secreted and cell-associated) was measured in monocyte cultures stimulated by a variety of agents in vitro. Monocytes either adherent to conventional plastic culture plates in serum-free conditions, or in suspension in culture medium containing serum were stimulated to produce IL-1 during culture. In non-adherent, serum-free conditions, monocytes produced very low or undetectable amounts of IL-1 during 20 h of culture. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced equivalent amounts of secreted and cell-associated IL-1, although at very low concentrations more cell-associated IL-1 was produced. IL-1 production in response to LPS could be augmented by crude lymphokine, IFN-gamma, or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. TNF-alpha preferentially augmented the production of cell-associated IL-1 in LPS-stimulated cultures. TNF-alpha induced a significant amount of IL-1 (mainly cell-associated) directly but could also induce IL-1 secretion when combined with IL-2 or IFN-gamma, or when in the presence of serum. IL-2 acted synergistically with low concentrations of IFN-gamma or IL-1 to induce significant levels of IL-1 production. IFN-alpha did not induce any IL-1 production, but was a potent inhibitor of IL-1 production induced by a variety of stimuli. These results suggest that IL-1 production may be enhanced or reduced by different cytokines at concentrations likely to be found in chronic inflammatory lesions.

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