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PLoS One. 2010 Dec 3;5(12):e14216. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014216.

Renal function and risk factors of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease in Golestan Province, northeast of Iran.

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Nephrology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



The incidence of end-stage renal disease is increasing worldwide. Earlier studies reported high prevalence rates of obesity and hypertension, two major risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD), in Golestan Province, Iran. We aimed to investigate prevalence of moderate to severe CKD and its risk factors in the region.


Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected from 3591 participants (≥18 years old) from the general population. Based on serum creatinine levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated.


High body mass index (BMI) was common: 35.0% of participants were overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and 24.5% were obese (BMI ≥30). Prevalence of CKD stages 3 to 5 (CKD-S3-5), i.e., GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), was 4.6%. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the risk of CKD-S3-5 associated with every year increase in age was 1.13 (1.11-1.15). Men were at lower risk of CKD-S3-5 than women (OR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.18-0.45). Obesity (OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.04-3.05) and self-reported diabetes (OR = 1.70; 95% CI 1.00-2.86), hypertension (OR = 3.16; 95% CI 2.02-4.95), ischemic heart disease (OR = 2.73; 95% CI 1.55-4.81), and myocardial infarction (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.14-6.32) were associated with increased risk of CKD-S3-5 in the models adjusted for age and sex. The association persisted for self-reported hypertension even after adjustments for BMI and history of diabetes (OR = 2.85; 95% CI 1.77-4.59).


A considerable proportion of inhabitants in Golestan have CKD-S3-5. Screening of individuals with major risk factors of CKD, in order to early detection and treatment of impaired renal function, may be plausible. Further studies on optimal risk prediction of future end-stage renal disease and effectiveness of any screening program are warranted.

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