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Biomark Insights. 2010 Dec 5;5:145-51. doi: 10.4137/BMI.S6257.

Identification of Unique Blood and Urine Biomarkers in Influenza Virus and Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection: A Preliminary Study.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Abstract

Each year, there are estimated to be approximately 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths due to influenza in the United States. Reports have indicated that most deaths are not directly due to influenza virus, but to secondary bacterial pneumonia, predominantly staphylococcal in origin. Here we identify the presence of candidate blood and urine biomarkers in mice with Staphyococcus aureus and influenza virus co-infection. In this pilot study, mice were grouped into four treatments: co-infected with influenza virus and S. aureus, singly infected with influenza virus or S. aureus, and a control group of uninfected mice (PBS treated). Gene expression changes were identified by DNA-microarrays from blood samples taken at day five post infection. Proteomic changes were obtained from urine samples collected at three and five days post infection using 2-D DIGE followed by protein ID by mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed genes and/or proteins were identified as candidate biomarkers for future validation in larger studies.

KEYWORDS:

Staphylococcus aureus; biomarker; influenza virus

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