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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Apr;129(4):470-80. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.314. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

Healthy lifestyles related to subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration.

Author information

1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 610 N Walnut Street, Madison, WI 53726-2336, USA. jmarespe@wisc.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the relationships between lifestyle behaviors of diet, smoking, and physical activity and the subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

METHODS:

The population included 1313 participants (aged 55-74 years) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Scores on a modified 2005 Healthy Eating Index were assigned using responses to a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1994-1998). Physical activity and lifetime smoking history were queried. An average of 6 years later, stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken to assess the presence and severity of AMD; it was present in 202 women, 94% of whom had early AMD, the primary outcome.

RESULTS:

In multivariate models, women whose diets scored in the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile on the modified 2005 Healthy Eating Index had 46% lower odds for early AMD. Women in the highest quintile compared with those in the lowest quintile for physical activity (in metabolic energy task hours per week) had 54% lower odds for early AMD. Although smoking was not independently associated with AMD on its own, having a combination of 3 healthy behaviors (healthy diet, physical activity, and not smoking) was associated with 71% lower odds for AMD compared with having high-risk scores (P < .001).

CONCLUSION:

Modifying lifestyles might reduce risk for early AMD as much as 3-fold, lowering the risk for advanced AMD in a person's lifetime and the social and economic costs of AMD to society.

PMID:
21149749
PMCID:
PMC3075357
DOI:
10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.314
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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