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Injury. 2010 Nov;41 Suppl 2:S9-15. doi: 10.1016/S0020-1383(10)70003-6.

Intravasation of bone marrow content. Can its magnitude and effects be modulated by low pressure reaming in a porcine model?

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Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Norway.



Intramedullary orthopaedic procedures may increase the intramedullary pressure (IMP) and thereby cause intravasation of bone marrow contents. In recent studies by the authors the reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) has been demonstrated to reduce IMP and coagulation-, fibrinolysis- and cytokine responses, but did not prove any significant difference in cardiopulmonary function parameters or numbers of emboli when compared to a traditional reaming (TR) system. The correlations between IMP increase, regardless type of reamer, and inflammatory- and coagulation responses, pulmonary embolization, and cardiopulmonary alterations have, however, not previously been analyzed in this material. Our hypothesis was that a lower IMP would result in reduced occurrence of pulmonary embolization, reduced inflammatory-and coagulation responses, as well as reduced cardiopulmonary alterations.


Twenty-eight young Norwegian landrace pigs were exposed to femoral intramedullary reaming, with either the TR (n = 10) or the RIA (n = 10) system, or used as controls (n = 8). IMP was recorded during reaming and nailing. Serial blood samples for demonstration of coagulation-, fibrinolysis-, and cytokine activation were withdrawn peroperatively and until 72 hours post nail insertion. Circulatory and pulmonary effects were monitored peroperatively and until two hours postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed 72 hours post nail insertion and lung tissue biopsies were harvested and examined for lung emboli.


A strong correlation between increased IMP and increased coagulation-and cytokine responses was found. The number of emboli was not significantly correlated to IMP, but was strongly correlated to changes in the coagulation- and cytokine responses. No clinical relevant correlations were observed between increased IMP or numbers of lung emboli and changes in hemodynamic- or pulmonary function parameters. A correlation between coagulation activation and cytokine activation was observed. This study confirms the connection between increased IMP, increased coagulation activation and the magnitude of pulmonary emboli in a model evaluating the effects of intramedullary reaming of intact pig femora. In this model, the lowering of IMP during reaming, as obtained with RIA, reduced the magnitude of and the effects of bone marrow extravasation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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