Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Ambio. 2010 Dec;39(8):546-54.

Biodiversity conservation in Swedish forests: ways forward for a 30-year-old multi-scaled approach.

Author information

1
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. lena.gustafsson@ekol.slu.se

Abstract

A multi-scaled model for biodiversity conservation in forests was introduced in Sweden 30 years ago, which makes it a pioneer example of an integrated ecosystem approach. Trees are set aside for biodiversity purposes at multiple scale levels varying from individual trees to areas of thousands of hectares, with landowner responsibility at the lowest level and with increasing state involvement at higher levels. Ecological theory supports the multi-scaled approach, and retention efforts at every harvest occasion stimulate landowners' interest in conservation. We argue that the model has large advantages but that in a future with intensified forestry and global warming, development based on more progressive thinking is necessary to maintain and increase biodiversity. Suggestions for the future include joint planning for several forest owners, consideration of cost-effectiveness, accepting opportunistic work models, adjusting retention levels to stand and landscape composition, introduction of temporary reserves, creation of "receiver habitats" for species escaping climate change, and protection of young forests.

PMID:
21141774
PMCID:
PMC3357677
DOI:
10.1007/s13280-010-0071-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center