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Proteomics Clin Appl. 2007 Apr;1(4):420-8. doi: 10.1002/prca.200600288. Epub 2007 Mar 13.

Proteomic analysis of alpha-1-antitrypsin in immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

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Department of Clinical Pathology, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.


Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is recognized as the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. It is characterized by mesangial cell proliferation with mesangial IgA deposition in the glomeruli, and is usually associated with secondary tubulointerstitial injury. Although significant progress has been made in the clarification of the pathogenesis of IgAN, the exact pathogenetic mechanism remains unclear. To find out the candidate proteins that play an important role in IgAN, renal cortex tissues and urine from IgAN patients were studied. The 2-DE was performed on renal tissues of IgAN and normal controls. A series of spots identified as alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) by mass spectrometry, were found to be significantly increased in patients with IgAN. Up-regulation of AAT variants was validated in renal cortex tissues of IgAN using Western blot and 2-DE immunoblot. Lower isoforms (˜48 kDa) and fragments (˜33 kDa), suspected as cleavage forms by proteinase attack, were especially increased in IgAN compared to normal controls. In addition, AAT proteins modified by tyrosine nitration (approximately 57 and 48 kDa), which reflects excessive oxidative stress, were increased in IgAN tissue. Additionally in the urine of IgAN, increase of AAT variants and fragments was detected by 2-DE immunoblot as well as Western blot. Immunohistochemical staining of IgAN kidney tissue revealed that the increase of AAT appeared to be derived from hypertrophic proximal tubules. The AAT staining in the glomerulus was not clear in IgAN. In addition, immunodepletion-zymography showed a positive correlation between AAT and 80-110-kDa proteinases in IgAN tissue. Further studies regarding the functional roles of AAT and the proteinases will allow better understanding of the pathogenesis of IgAN.


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