Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Res. 2011 Jan;21(1):205-12. doi: 10.1038/cr.2010.172. Epub 2010 Dec 7.

BMPs functionally replace Klf4 and support efficient reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts by Oct4 alone.

Author information

Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China.


Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells by defined factors has become a useful model to investigate the mechanism of reprogramming and cell fate determination. However, the precise mechanism of factor-based reprogramming remains unclear. Here, we show that Klf4 mainly acts at the initial phase of reprogramming to initiate mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and can be functionally replaced by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs boosted the efficiency of Oct4/Sox2-mediated reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to ∼1%. BMPs also promoted single-factor Oct4-based reprogramming of MEFs and tail tibial fibroblasts. Our studies clarify the contribution of Klf4 in reprogramming and establish Oct4 as a singular setter of pluripotency in differentiated cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center