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J Control Release. 2011 Jun 10;152(2):208-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.11.033. Epub 2010 Dec 4.

Neurotherapeutic applications of nanoparticles in Alzheimer's disease.

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1
INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531, boul. des Prairies, H7V 1B7 Laval, Québec, Canada.

Abstract

A rapid increase in incidence of neurodegenerative disorders has been observed with the aging of the population. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder among the elderly. It is characterized by memory dysfunction, loss of lexical access, spatial and temporal disorientation and impairment of judgement clinically. Unfortunately, clinical development of drugs for the symptomatic and disease-modifying treatment of AD has resulted in both promise and disappointment. Indeed, a large number of drugs with differing targets and mechanisms of action were investigated with only a few of them being clinically available. The targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS), for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD, is restricted due to the limitations posed by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as well as due to opsonization by plasma proteins in the systemic circulation and peripheral side-effects. Over the last decade, nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery represents one promising strategy to successfully increase the CNS penetration of several therapeutic moieties. Different nanocarriers are being investigated to treat and diagnose AD by delivering at a constant rate a host of therapeutics over times extending up to days, weeks or even months. This review provides a concise incursion on the current pharmacotherapies for AD besides reviewing and discussing the literature on the different drug molecules that have been successfully encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs). Some of them have been shown to cross the BBB and have been tested either for diagnosis or treatment of AD. Finally, the route of NPs administration and the future prospects will be discussed.

PMID:
21134407
DOI:
10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.11.033
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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