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Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Dec;6(12):667-79. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2010.164.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other forms of JC virus disease.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology and St Vincent's Center for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital and University of New South Wales, Victoria Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. b.brew@unsw.edu.au

Abstract

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV). PML usually occurs via reactivation of JCV when an immune system becomes compromised. A diagnosis of PML is normally made on the basis of distinguishing neurological features at presentation, characteristic brain MRI changes and the presence of JCV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. PML has a 3 month mortality rate of 20-50%, so prompt intervention is essential. Currently, reconstitution of the immune system affords the best prognosis for this condition. When PML is first suspected, and where possible, immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy should be suspended or reduced. If PML is associated with a protein therapy that has a long half-life the use of plasma exchange to accelerate the removal of the drug from the circulation may aid the restoration of immune system function. Rapid improvements in immune function, however, might lead to transient worsening of the disease. In this Review, we critically appraise the controversies surrounding JCV infection, and provide practical management guidelines for PML.

PMID:
21131916
DOI:
10.1038/nrneurol.2010.164
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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