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Eur J Public Health. 2011 Jun;21(3):286-91. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckq173. Epub 2010 Dec 1.

Dose response association of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure, childhood stature, overweight and obesity.

Author information

1
Child and Reproductive Health Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported.

METHOD:

A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental questionnaires were used for family characteristics, socio-economic status and parental smoking practices. Children were measured for height and weight and z-scores calculated for parental smoking categories.

RESULTS:

Of 689 (34.0%) mothers who smoked during pregnancy 50.5% smoked ten or more cigarettes daily (heavy smokers). Children of maternal non-smokers had prevalence estimates for overweight, obesity and short stature of 25, 9.6 and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalence estimates were higher in children of mothers who were heavy smokers during pregnancy, 31.5% (P = 0.001), 15.6% (P < 0.001) and 5.5% (P = 0.001), respectively. Mean height for age z-scores was lower among heavy maternal (P < 0.001) and paternal smokers (P < 0.01) compared to non-smokers. Childhood overweight, obesity or short stature were all associated with heavy maternal smoking during pregnancy (all P < 0.001). Mean body mass index (BMI) z-scores were higher in boys of mothers who smoked (P = 0.043). The adjusted odds ratio for short stature in children of heavy maternal smokers was 2.76 (95% CI 1.21-6.33) and 4.28 (1.37-13.37) if both parents were heavy smokers. The adjusted OR for obesity in children of maternal smokers was 1.61(1.19-2.18). The population attributable risk for short stature was 8.8% (1.1-22.7) for heavy maternal smokers.

CONCLUSION:

A dose-response association was observed between pregnancy smoking exposure, short stature and obesity.

PMID:
21126981
DOI:
10.1093/eurpub/ckq173
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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