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Indian J Orthop. 2007 Jan;41(1):32-6. doi: 10.4103/0019-5413.30523.

Outcome measurements in orthopedic.

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Departments of Surgery, Divisions of Orthopedic Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


The choice of outcome measure in orthopedic clinical research studies is paramount. The primary outcome measure for a study has several implications for the design and conduct of the study. These include: 1) sample size determination, 2) internal validity, 3) compliance and 4) cost. A thorough knowledge of outcome measures in orthopedic research is paramount to the conduct of a quality study. The decision to choose a continuous versus dichotomous outcome has important implications for sample size. However, regardless of the type of outcome, investigators should always use the most 'patient-important' outcome and limit bias in its determination.


Evidence-based medicine; outcomes; research

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