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MAbs. 2010 Nov-Dec;2(6):662-9. doi: 10.4161/mabs.2.6.13275.

Functional mapping of the anti-idiotypic antibody anti-TS1 scFv using site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis.

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Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.


Recombinant antibodies may be engineered to obtain improved functional properties. Functional mapping of the residues in the binding surfaces is of importance for predicting alterations needed to yield the desired properties. In this investigation, 17 single mutation mutant single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) of the anti-idiotypic antibody anti-TS1 were generated in order to functionally map amino acid residues important for the interaction with its idiotype TS1. Residues in anti-TS1 determined to be very important for the interaction were identified, Y32L, K50L, K33H, and Y52H, and they were distributed adjacent to a centrally located hydrophobic area, and contributed extensively to the interaction energy (≥2.5 kcal/mol) in the interaction. Quantitative ELISA assays, BIAcore technologies and three-dimensional surface analysis by modeling were employed to visualize the consequences of the mutations. The expression levels varied between 2 - 1,800 nM as determined by ELISA. All the 17 scFvs displayed higher dissociation rates (60 - 1,300 times) and all but two of them also faster association rates (1.3 - 56 times). The decrease in affinity was determined to be 1.6 - 12,200 times. Two of the mutants displayed almost identical affinity with the wild type anti-TS1, but with a change in both association and dissociation rates. The present investigation demonstrates that it is possible to generate a large panorama of anti-idiotypic antibodies, and single out a few that might be of potential use for future clearing and pre-targeting purposes of idiotypic-anti-idiotypic interactions.

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