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J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2010 Dec 1;27(12):2602-12. doi: 10.1364/JOSAA.27.002602.

Structure of optical singularities in coaxial superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussian modes.

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Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamamatsu-City 434-8601, Japan.


We investigate optical singularities in coaxial superpositions of two Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes with a common beam waist from the viewpoints of a general formulation of phase structure, experimental generation of various superposition beams, and evaluation of the generated beams' fidelity. By applying a holographic phase-amplitude modulation scheme using a phase-modulation-type spatial light modulator, output fidelity beyond 0.960 was observed under several typical conditions. Additionally, an elliptic-type folded singularity, which provides a different class of phase structures from familiar helical singularities, was predicted and observed in a superposition involving two LG modes of both radially and azimuthally higher orders.

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