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Med Vet Entomol. 2011 Jun;25(2):217-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2010.00923.x. Epub 2010 Dec 1.

Novel field assays and the comparative repellency of BioUD(®) , DEET and permethrin against Amblyomma americanum.

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Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh, NC 27695-7613, USA.

Erratum in

  • Med Vet Entomol. 2012 Sep;26(3):359.


Two new field bioassay methods were developed to compare the repellent activity of BioUD(®) (containing 7.75% 2-undecanone), 98.1% DEET and 0.5% permethrin against natural populations of nymphal Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). In a cloth sheet assay, pieces of material measuring 41 × 58 cm, separately treated with one of the test materials or the appropriate solvent carrier, were placed at random on the ground and baited with dry ice for 1 h. Mean numbers of ticks on repellent-treated sheets were significantly lower than on control sheets. There was no significant difference in the number of ticks collected between sheets treated with BioUD(®) and those treated with DEET. However, significantly fewer ticks were found on sheets treated with BioUD(®) or DEET than on permethrin-treated sheets. In a sock test, over-the-calf tube socks were treated with one of the test materials or the appropriate solvent carrier. Human volunteers wore a repellent-treated and a corresponding carrier-treated sock on either leg and walked randomly over an area of approximately 4000 m(2) for 15 min. Significantly fewer ticks were collected from socks treated with BioUD(®) or DEET than from socks treated with the carrier and there was no significant difference in repellency between these two agents. No difference in the mean number of ticks collected was found between permethrin-treated and corresponding carrier-treated socks. To examine the mechanism of repellency of BioUD(®) , a four-choice olfactometer was used to assess spatial repellency against adult A. americanum. As expected in the absence of a repellent, when all choices were represented by water-treated filter paper, ticks were equally distributed among the choices. When one choice consisted of BioUD(®) -treated filter paper and the remaining choices of water-treated paper, the distribution of ticks on the repellent-treated paper was significantly lower than might be expected to occur by chance, suggesting that repellency is at least partly achieved by an olfactory mechanism.

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