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Heart Fail Rev. 2011 Nov;16(6):615-20. doi: 10.1007/s10741-010-9197-z.

Hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Abstract

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a cardiovascular complication highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. LVH in CKD patients has generally a negative prognostic value, because it represents an independent risk factor for the development of arrhythmias, sudden death, heart failure and ischemic heart disease. LVH in CKD patients is secondary to both pressure and volume overload. Pressure overload is secondary to preexisting hypertension, but also to a loss of elasticity of the vessels and to vascular calcifications, leading to augmented pulse pressure. Anemia and the retention of sodium and water secondary to decreased renal function are responsible for volume overload, determining a hyperdynamic state. In particular, the correction of anemia with erythropoietin in CKD patients is advantageous, since it determines LVH reduction. Other risk factors for LVH in CKD patients are documented: some are specific to CKD, as mineral metabolism disorders (hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, low serum vitamin D levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism), others are non-traditional, such as increased asymmetric dimethylarginine, oxidative stress, hyperhomocysteinemia and endothelial dysfunction that, in turn, accelerates the process of atherogenesis, triggers the inflammation and pro-thrombotic state of the glomerular and the vascular endothelium and aggravates the process of both CKD and LVH.

PMID:
21116711
DOI:
10.1007/s10741-010-9197-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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