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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Feb;55(2):561-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01079-10. Epub 2010 Nov 29.

Candida bloodstream infections: comparison of species distributions and antifungal resistance patterns in community-onset and nosocomial isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2008-2009.

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JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA 52317, USA.


Community-onset (CO) candidemia, defined as a positive blood culture taken at or within 2 days of hospital admission, represents a distinct clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Reference MIC results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2008-2009) were analyzed to compare the antifungal resistance patterns and species distributions from patients with CO and nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) in 79 medical centers. Among 1,354 episodes of BSI, 494 (36.5%) were classified as CO and 860 (63.5%) as nosocomial in origin. More than 95% of the isolates from both BSI types were contributed by Candida albicans (48.4%), C. glabrata (18.2%), C. parapsilosis (17.1%), C. tropicalis (10.6%), and C. krusei (2.0%). C. albicans was more common in CO BSI (51.0%) than nosocomial BSI (46.9%), whereas C. parapsilosis and C. krusei were more common in nosocomial BSIs (18.1 and 2.7%, respectively) than in CO BSIs (15.4 and 0.8%, respectively). C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were comparable in both CO (18.4 and 10.5%, respectively) and nosocomial (18.1 and 10.6%, respectively) episodes. Resistance to azoles (fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin) was uncommon (<5%) in CO BSI using recently established Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint criteria. Resistance to echinocandins (anidulafungin [3.8%], caspofungin [5.1%], and micafungin [3.2%]) and azoles (fluconazole [7.7%], posaconazole [5.1%], and voriconazole [6.4%]) was most prevalent among nosocomial BSI isolates of C. glabrata. CO candidemia is not uncommon and appears to be increasing worldwide due to changing health care practices. Although resistance to the azoles and echinocandins remains uncommon among CO isolates, we demonstrate the emergence of nosocomial occurrences of C. glabrata expressing resistance to both monitored classes of antifungal agents.

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