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World J Urol. 2011 Feb;29(1):51-7. doi: 10.1007/s00345-010-0618-3. Epub 2010 Nov 26.

Five-year cost analysis of intra-detrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A and augmentation cystoplasty for refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

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  • 1Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.



Treatment options for antimuscarinic refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) are botulinum toxin type A injections (BTX-A) and augmentation cystoplasty (AC). We estimated initial and cumulative 5-year costs of these treatments.


Base case is an individual with antimuscarinic refractory NDO and decreased bladder compliance. Primary analysis is from the health care payor perspective. Model probabilities and ranges were derived from literature and chart review. Reimbursements were derived from the average of insurance carriers. Complication cost calculations were based on standard practice. Decision-analysis model was made with TreeAge Pro Healthcare 2009 Software, Inc. and rolled back for cost calculation. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed on all variables, and two-way sensitivity analyses were based on these results.


Average reimbursement for one BTX-A injection and AC was $2,946.83 and $25,041.53, respectively. BTX-A treatment was less expensive over 5 years, costing $28,065. The model was only sensitive within a reasonable clinical range for Botox durability. BTX-A was more cost-effective over 5 years if the effect lasted for >5.1 months. The model was based on an AC complication rate of 40%. If the PAC complication rate<14%, AC was cheaper over 5 years. The model was sensitive to surgeons costs of BTX-A ($3,027) and facility costs of BTX-A ($1,004) and AC ($17,100).


This is the first cost analysis of BTX-A and AC. BTX-A is cheaper at durations>5.1 months and AC was cheaper when the cost of BTX-A increases or the AC complication rate dropped below 14%.

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