Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Apr;67(4):371-81. doi: 10.1007/s00228-010-0950-y. Epub 2010 Nov 26.

Prediction of phenprocoumon maintenance dose and phenprocoumon plasma concentration by genetic and non-genetic parameters.

Author information

  • 1German Red Cross, Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.



The anticoagulation response to vitamin K antagonists is characterised by high inter-individual variability. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes of enzymes involved in the vitamin K cycle on phenprocoumon dose variability and phenprocoumon plasma concentrations is still under investigation.


We assessed the influence of VKORC1 c.-1639G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 c.1297G>A, CALU c.*4A>G, EPHX1 c.337T>C, GGCX c.214+597G>A, F7 c.-402G>A, F7 c.-401G>T, PROC c.-228C>T and PROC c.-215G>A along with clinical and demographic parameters on steady-state phenprocoumon therapy in 75 patients. A prediction model was developed for total phenprocoumon plasma concentrations and daily phenprocoumon doses required for therapeutic anticoagulation.


The VKORC1 c.-1639 genotype was the main predictor of the phenprocoumon daily dose (adjusted R(2) = 37.6%) and the total phenprocoumon concentration (adjusted R(2) = 38.3%). CYP2C9 affected the phenprocoumon concentration, but not the dose requirements. SNPs in the other genes of the vitamin K cycle, concomitant medication, nicotine use and alcohol consumption did not predict phenprocoumon concentrations and phenprocoumon dose requirements in a multiple linear regression model. Phenprocoumon concentrations were predicted by VKORC1 c.-1639, CYP2C9 genotype, age and BMI. The final prediction model for the daily phenprocoumon dose requirements comprised VKORC1 c.-1639 genotype, age and height accounting for 48.6% of the inter-individual variability.


A rough prediction of phenprocoumon maintenance doses can be achieved by a limited set of parameters (VKORC1, age, height). The investigated SNPs in CYP4F2, CALU, EPHX1, GGCX, F7, and PROC did not improve the predictive value of a pharmacogenetic-based dosing equation for phenprocoumon.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center