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J Periodontal Res. 2011 Apr;46(2):164-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2010.01324.x. Epub 2010 Nov 26.

Diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis: differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Division of Periodontology, Department of Clinical and Dental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Torrette, Ancona, Italy.



Although many studies have appeared about diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis, few have compared periodontitis inflammatory markers between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and information regarding this issue is scarce and contradictory. We evaluated the levels of plasma C-reactive protein and of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid in two groups of subjects affected by T1DM and T2DM, in order to identify possible differences between the two classes in the inflammatory mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis.


Plasma C-reactive protein and gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in periodontitis patients affected by type 1 (P-T1DM, n = 24) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM, n = 24).


Gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in P-T1DM subjects were significantly higher than in P-T2DM subjects. In P-T1DM subjects, we found significant negative correlations between the duration of diabetes mellitus and IL-1β and between the duration of diabetes mellitus and TNF-α.


This study shows that IL-1β and TNF-α levels in periodontitis patients with T1DM are affected by the duration of diabetes mellitus.

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