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J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Nov;56(5):570-9.

Cardiovascular and renal pathologic implications of prorenin, renin, and the (pro)renin receptor: promising young players from the old renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

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Department of Pharmacology, SB College of Pharmacy, Sivakasi, India.


The overactivation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system accounts for many cardiovascular and renal abnormalities. At several levels of its cascade, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system can be efficiently inhibited, of which interruption of the generation of angiotensin I by renin inhibition is considered most efficacious. All of these interruptions (renin inhibition, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and AT1 receptor blockade) increase plasma renin levels by inhibiting the negative feedback loop exerted by angiotensin II on renin production. Recent studies show that both prorenin and renin activate angiotensin II-independent signaling cascade through (pro)renin receptor, a new-fangled player of the old renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The probable mechanisms by which prorenin, renin, and (pro)renin receptors are functionally interrelated in pathophysiological conditions have been debated over the past decade without satisfactory conclusion. We revisited these areas and critically examined the relationship between elevated levels of circulating prorenin and renin-induced activation of the (pro)renin receptor and incidences of hypertension and end-organ damage. The complexity of the (pro)renin receptor has grown up with recent reports that this multifunctional receptor is a component of the Wnt receptor complex. This complexity and the receptor's function as an adaptor between the Wnt receptor and the vacuolar H+-ATPase complex has also been addressed in this review.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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