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J Med Virol. 2011 Jan;83(1):45-53. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21829.

A matched case-control study of hepatitis B virus mutations in the preS and core promoter regions associated independently with hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.


This study aimed to determine hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations associated independently with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as adjusted with other mutations in the preS and core promoter regions of HBV genotypes B and C. One hundred and forty HBV-infected patients with HCC and 280 HBV-infected patients without HCC who had intact data of HBV genotyping and DNA sequencing in both regions were involved in this age-, sex-matched case-control study. Univariate and two-step stepwise multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with the risk of HCC. Of 39 mutations evaluated, 23 in genotype C and 6 in genotype B were associated with an increased risk of HCC in the univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses established that genotype C (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-9.8), viral load (≥10(4) copies/ml) (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.0-5.8), A2962G (AOR = 18.7; 95% CI = 7.5-46.7), preS2 start codon mutation (AOR = 12.5; 95% CI = 3.4-45.5), C105T (AOR = 0.1; 95% CI = 0.0-0.2), T1753V (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.1-9.2), and A1762T/G1764A (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.3) were associated independently with HCC, adjusted for factors including mutations in both regions. By using an estimating haplotype frequencies program, it was found that a haplotypic carriage with 105C and 2962G was significantly more frequent in the patients with HCC than in those without HCC and the frequency of haplotype 2962G-preS2 start codon wildtype-105C-1762T/1764A was 47.9% in the patients with HCC and 4.3% in those without HCC. Conclusively, A2962G and T105C are novel factors associated independently with HCC. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the role of these mutations in the development of HCC.

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