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Endoscopy. 2011 Feb;43(2):134-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1255955. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: endoscopic full-thickness resection of early gastric cancer and laparoscopic regional lymph node dissection--14 human cases.

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NOTES Research Group, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.



Minimally invasive treatment has become a mainstay management strategy for early gastric cancer (EGC). Full-thickness incision of the gastric wall using natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been reported but is not easily applicable in clinical settings at present. The aim of the current study was to assess the feasibility of hybrid NOTES, which consists of endoscopic full-thickness gastric resection and a laparoscopic lymphadenectomy.


This was a prospective, pilot study at a single tertiary care referral center. A total of 14 patients with EGC located above the lower third of the stomach underwent hybrid NOTES. Clinically, the patients had contraindications to exclusive treatment using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The main outcome measure was technical success of hybrid NOTES.


All cases were resected en bloc with negative surgical margins. Histologically, four cases were mucosal cancers, and 10 cases were submucosal cancers. The median tumor size was 26 mm (range 12 - 90 mm). Lymphatic vessel invasion was found in four cases without lymph node metastasis (LNM). The median number of obtained lymph nodes was 18 (range 7 - 67). LNM was discovered in one case of undifferentiated submucosal cancer without lymphovascular invasion. Hybrid NOTES was conducted without intraoperative or postoperative adverse events in nine cases. The median operating time and estimated blood loss of successful cases were 143 minutes (range 110 - 253 minutes) and 16 mL (range 5 - 30 mL), respectively. The median hospital stay was 6 days (range 4 - 10 days). Five cases were converted to a subtotal gastrectomy for various reasons.


Hybrid NOTES could be a bridge between endoscopic resection and laparoscopic surgery and may prevent extensive gastrectomy in patients with EGC.

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