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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):E297-303. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1324. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) induces calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-I and procalcitonin (Pro-CT) production in human adipocytes.

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University Hospital Basel, Department of Biomedicine, Metabolism Group, Hebelstrasse 20, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.



Increased plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), calcitonin CT gene-related peptide (CGRP)-I, and procalcitonin (Pro-CT) are associated with obesity. Adipocytes express functional GIP receptors and the CT peptides Pro-CT and CGRP-I. However, a link between GIP and CT peptides has not been studied yet.


The objective of the study was the assessment of the GIP effect on the expression and secretion of CGRP-I and Pro-CT in human adipocytes, CGRP-I and CT gene expression in adipose tissue (AT) from obese vs. lean subjects, and plasma levels of CGRP-I and Pro-CT after a high-fat meal in obese patients.


Human preadipocyte-derived adipocytes, differentiated in vitro, were treated with GIP. mRNA expression and protein secretion of CGRP-I and Pro-CT were measured. Human CGRP-I and CT mRNA expression in AT and CGRP-I and Pro-CT plasma concentrations were assessed.


Treatment with 1 nm GIP induced CGRP-I mRNA expression 6.9 ± 1.0-fold (P < 0.001 vs. control) after 2 h and CT gene expression 14.0 ± 1.7-fold (P < 0.001 vs. control) after 6 h. GIP stimulated CGRP-I secretion 1.7 ± 0.2-fold (P < 0.05 vs. control) after 1 h. In AT samples of obese subjects, CGRP-I mRNA expression was higher in sc AT (P < 0.05 vs. lean subjects), whereas CT expression was higher in visceral AT (P < 0.05 vs. lean subjects). CGRP-I plasma levels increased after a high-fat meal in obese patients.


GIP induces CGRP-I and CT expression in human adipocytes. Therefore, elevated Pro-CT and CGRP-I levels in obesity might result from GIP-induced Pro-CT and CGRP-I release in AT and might be triggered by a high-fat diet. How these findings relate to the metabolic complications of obesity warrants further investigations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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