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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Mar 1;3(3). pii: a001800. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a001800.

The growth cone cytoskeleton in axon outgrowth and guidance.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 53706, USA.

Abstract

Axon outgrowth and guidance to the proper target requires the coordination of filamentous (F)-actin and microtubules (MTs), the dynamic cytoskeletal polymers that promote shape change and locomotion. Over the past two decades, our knowledge of the many guidance cues, receptors, and downstream signaling cascades involved in neuronal outgrowth and guidance has increased dramatically. Less is known, however, about how those cascades of information converge and direct appropriate remodeling and interaction of cytoskeletal polymers, the ultimate effectors of movement and guidance. During development, much of the communication that occurs between environmental guidance cues and the cytoskeleton takes place at the growing tip of the axon, the neuronal growth cone. Several articles on this topic focus on the "input" to the growth cone, the myriad of receptor types, and their corresponding cognate ligands. Others investigate the signaling cascades initiated by receptors and propagated by second messenger pathways (i.e., kinases, phosphatases, GTPases). Ultimately, this plethora of information converges on proteins that associate directly with the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The role of these cytoskeletal-associated proteins, as well as the cytoskeleton itself in axon outgrowth and guidance, is the subject of this article.

PMID:
21106647
PMCID:
PMC3039926
DOI:
10.1101/cshperspect.a001800
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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