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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Feb;66(2):319-22. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkq435. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

Exposure of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 to the biocide chlorhexidine leads to acquired resistance to the biocide itself and to oxidants.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Biotechnology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Vibhavadee Rangsit Highway, Bangkok 10210, Thailand.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of chlorhexidine on oxidative stress protection by Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1.

METHODS:

ADP1 cultures were exposed to sublethal concentrations of chlorhexidine prior to being challenged with lethal concentrations of chlorhexidine itself and by oxidants. Oxidant-sensitive dyes and a flow cytometer were used to measure the formation of reactive oxygen species. The role of efflux pumps in chlorhexidine resistance was investigated using a specific inhibitor.

RESULTS:

Exposure of ADP1 to low concentrations of chlorhexidine induced adaptive and cross-protective responses to chlorhexidine and oxidants (H(2)O(2) and a superoxide anion generator), respectively. Chlorhexidine treatment of ADP1 resulted in the formation of H(2)O(2) and superoxide anions that are probably responsible for the cross-protection against oxidants.

CONCLUSIONS:

Exposure of ADP1 to sublethal concentrations of chlorhexidine confers inducible resistance to lethal concentrations of chlorhexidine itself and to oxidants. An important link was demonstrated between exposure to a biocide and the gaining of resistance to both the biocide and oxidative stress.

PMID:
21106564
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkq435
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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