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Appl Opt. 1996 Jul 1;35(19):3562-9. doi: 10.1364/AO.35.003562.

Optical, thermo-optic, electro-optic, and photoelastic properties of bismuth germanate (Bi(4)Ge(3)O(12)).


To assess the suitability of bismuth germanate as an electro-optic material for high precision applications, we have confirmed and extended previous data on its refractive index, electro-optic tensor element r(41), and thermal expansion coefficient. In addition, we have measured the thermo-optic coefficient dn/dT, the temperature dependence of the electro-optic coefficient, and the stress-optic tensor elements. From the stress-optic tensor elements and previously published data, we have computed the strain-optic tensor elements. The index of refraction is given, to a good approximation, by the single-term Sellmeier equation, n(2) - 1 = S(0)λ(0)(2)/[1 - (λ(0)/λ)(2)], with S(0) = 95.608 µm(-2) and λ(0) = 0.1807 µm. The thermo-optic coefficient is 3.9 × 10(-5)/°C at 632.8 nm and 3.5 × 10(-5)/°C at 1152.3 nm. The electro-optic tensor element varies between approximately 1.05 and 1.11 pm/V over the spectral range of 550-1000 nm; its normalized effective change with temperature is approximately 1.54 × 10(-4)/°C. The thermal expansion coefficient is 6.3 × 10(-6)/°C over the range 15-125 °C. Values of the stress-optic tensor elements are q(11) - q(12) = -2.995 × 10(-13) m(2)/N and q(44) = -0.1365 × 10(-12) m(2)/N. The strain-optic tensor elements are p(11) - p(12) = -0.0266 and p(44) = -0.0595.

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