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Nat Immunol. 2011 Jan;12(1):37-44. doi: 10.1038/ni.1963. Epub 2010 Nov 21.

ZAPS is a potent stimulator of signaling mediated by the RNA helicase RIG-I during antiviral responses.

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Division of Signaling in Cancer and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.


The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) participate in many biological and pathological processes. Here we report that the PARP-13 shorter isoform (ZAPS), rather than the full-length protein (ZAP), was selectively induced by 5'-triphosphate-modified RNA (3pRNA) and functioned as a potent stimulator of interferon responses in human cells mediated by the RNA helicase RIG-I. ZAPS associated with RIG-I to promote the oligomerization and ATPase activity of RIG-I, which led to robust activation of IRF3 and NF-κB transcription factors. Disruption of the gene encoding ZAPS resulted in impaired induction of interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β and other cytokines after viral infection. These results indicate that ZAPS is a key regulator of RIG-I signaling during the innate antiviral immune response, which suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for viral control.

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