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Clin Plast Surg. 2011 Jan;38(1):133-42. doi: 10.1016/j.cps.2010.08.013.

Special considerations in vascular anomalies: operative management of craniofacial osseous lesions.

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Division of Plastic Surgery, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USA.


The treatment of vascular anomalies of the head and neck typically focuses on restoration of abnormal structures of the soft tissues. However, vascular anomalies can affect the craniofacial skeleton, and osseous reconstruction may be indicated. Osseous involvement occurs as either a primary or secondary phenomenon. In primary osseous involvement, the vascular anomaly expands the bone from within. Secondary osseous involvement occurs when bony hypertrophy develops because of increased flow of the surrounding soft tissue. This article focuses on the management of the osseous deformities associated with vascular anomalies.

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