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J Dairy Sci. 2010 Dec;93(12):5764-71. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3429.

Risk factors for postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows.

Author information

1
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. jocelyn.dubuc@umontreal.ca

Abstract

The objective of this observational study was to investigate the risk factors for metritis, purulent vaginal discharge, and cytological endometritis. The hypothesis was that purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis would have different risk factors because they represent distinct manifestations of uterine disease. Data generated from 1,363 Holstein cows (3 herds) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used. Calving history, periparturient disease incidence, and body condition score at calving and at 63 d in milk (DIM) were recorded. Serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration was measured once during the week before expected calving. Serum nonesterified fatty acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and haptoglobin (Hapto) concentrations were measured at 4 ± 3, 11 ± 3, and 18 ± 3 DIM. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at 21 ± 3, 35 ± 3, 49 ± 3, and 63 ± 3 DIM. Metritis was diagnosed by farm managers within the first 20 DIM using a standardized definition. Cows were examined at 35 ± 3 DIM by a veterinarian for purulent vaginal discharge (mucopurulent or worse vaginal discharge; Metricheck device) and cytological endometritis (≥ 6% polymorphonuclear cells on endometrial cytology; cytobrush device). Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models for each disease, accounting for the random effect of herd. Risk factors for metritis included increased nonesterified fatty acid prepartum (≥ 0.6 mmol/L), dystocia, retained placenta, and increased Hapto in the first week postpartum (≥ 0.8 g/L). Risk factors for purulent vaginal discharge included twinning, dystocia, metritis, and increased Hapto (≥ 0.8 g/L) in the first week postpartum. Risk factors for cytological endometritis included low body condition score at parturition (≤ 2.75), hyperketonemia (≥ 1,100 μmol/L), and increased Hapto (≥ 0.8 g/L) in the first week postpartum. These results support the hypothesis that some of the risk factors for purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis are different, which supports that they are distinct manifestations of uterine disease.

PMID:
21094748
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2010-3429
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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