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Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2010 Aug;18(3):525-47, xi. doi: 10.1016/j.mric.2010.07.010.

Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver: sequence optimization and artifacts.

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Body Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.


The liver is one of the most challenging organs of the body to image with magnetic resonance because it is large and mobile, receives a dual blood supply, and is surrounded by organs and structures that contribute to artifacts from flow and susceptibility. Recent advances in imaging hardware, in addition to improvements in temporal resolution and development of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents, make imaging of the liver more approachable than in the past; however, it remains a complex process that requires compromise. In this article the authors discuss development and optimization of a liver imaging protocol at 1.5 T, with common variations in each element of the protocol, as well as the strengths and weaknesses associated with the relevant sequences.

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