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Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2011 Feb;44(1):161-82, vi. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2010.09.006.

Common oral manifestations of systemic disease.

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Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Medicine & Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2859, USA.


Oral manifestations of systemic diseases are potential indicators of an array of conditions. Truly the oral cavity is a mirror that reflects and unravels many of the human body's internal secrets. Some of these manifestations are disease specific and help raise a high degree of suspicion for the alert clinician. Because oral manifestations may accompany many systemic diseases, it is essential that these are appropriately recognized to provide correct diagnosis and referral for treatment and patient care. Multiple entities involving the various areas of the oral cavity like the soft palate, hard palate, tongue, gingiva, oral mucosa, the dentition, periodontium, and the salivary gland tissue have been enlisted. Although this article is not all-inclusive, the authors highlight lesions or conditions that are directly related to or are caused by some of the more common systemic diseases, and hope to provide ample insight for physicians, dentists, and clinicians in otolaryngologic practice.

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