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BJU Int. 2011 Feb;107(4):532-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09853.x. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

Urothelial lesions with inverted growth patterns: histogenesis, molecular genetic findings, differential diagnosis and clinical management.

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  • 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


A number of well-recognized urothelial lesions with inverted morphology occur in the urinary bladder. Some are so common that they are considered normal variants of urothelium, whereas others are rare. It is important for the surgical pathologist to recognize these lesions and their overlapping morphological features, because in some cases establishing an accurate diagnosis is challenging. In this article, we review the spectrum of inverted urothelial lesions of the bladder. Emphasis is placed on differential diagnosis, molecular genetic findings, morphology and histogenesis.

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