Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;162(5):1060-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01116.x.

Chronic Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment in rhesus monkeys: differential tolerance and cross-tolerance among cannabinoids.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA. mcmahonl@uthscsa.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The extent to which behavioural effects vary as a function of CB₁ receptor agonist efficacy is not clear. These studies tested the hypothesis that cannabinoid tolerance and cross-tolerance depend upon the CB₁ agonist efficacy of drugs to which tolerance/cross-tolerance develops.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

Sensitivity to cannabinoids, including the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant, low efficacy agonist Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), and high efficacy agonists CP 55940 and WIN 55212-2, was determined before and after chronic Δ⁹-THC treatment in rhesus monkeys. Two measures of behavioural effect were assessed: effects of drugs to decrease fixed ratio responding for food presentation and stimulus-shock termination and discriminative stimulus effects in monkeys discriminating Δ⁹-THC (0.1 mg·kg⁻¹, i.v.).

KEY RESULTS:

Δ⁹-THC decreased responding for both food presentation and stimulus-shock termination; these effects were antagonized by the CB₁ antagonist rimonabant. Chronic Δ⁹-THC (1 mg·kg⁻¹ per 12 h, s.c.) resulted in tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of Δ⁹-THC and cross-tolerance to CP 55940 and WIN 55212-2; however, cross-tolerance was less than tolerance. Chronic Δ⁹-THC increased sensitivity to rimonabant without changing sensitivity to the non-cannabinoids midazolam and ketamine. In monkeys discriminating Δ⁹-THC (0.1 mg·kg⁻¹, i.v.), both CP 55940 and WIN 55212-2 produced high levels of drug-lever responding. Chronic Δ⁹-THC (1 mg·kg⁻¹ per day, s.c.) decreased sensitivity to Δ⁹-THC without producing cross-tolerance to CP 55940 or WIN 55212-2.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

In Δ⁹-THC-treated monkeys, the magnitude of tolerance and cross-tolerance to other CB₁ receptor agonists varied inversely with agonist efficacy, suggesting that CB₁ agonist efficacy is an important determinant of behavioural effects.

PMID:
21091643
PMCID:
PMC3051379
DOI:
10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01116.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms

Substances

Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center